The disease - a process that occurs as a result of harmful effects on the body (emergency) stimulus external or internal environment, characterized by a decrease in the adaptability of the living organism to the environment while simultaneously mobilizing its security forces. BoleznBolezn manifest violation of the body equilibrium with the environment, manifested in the occurrence of side (inadequate) reactions, as in humans - a decrease of the illness of his disability.
The development of a common understanding of diseases has changed throughout the history of medicine. The ancient Greek physician and reformer of ancient medicine Hippocrates cause of the disease is considered improper mixing of the four main body fluids: blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black (venous blood). Around the same time, based on atomistic teachings of the ancient Greek materialist philosopher Democritus originated the idea that the disease develops as a result of changes in the shape of atoms and their improper location. At the end of the old and the beginning of a new era, and especially in the Middle Ages there were idealistic views on the doctrine of the disease, according to which the soul, or a special kind of life force ( "Archean"), determines the body's fight caused boleznfmi changes.
Materialist view of the disease in the Middle Ages developed by Ibn Sina (occurrence of the disease under the influence of invisible beings, the role of the body's constitution). In the 17th - 19th centuries, a great contribution to the study of the disease have an Italian physician and anatomist Giovanni Battista Morgagni (the idea of the relationship of the disease with anatomical changes in the organs), a French physician, one of the founders of Pathological Anatomy and Histology Marie Francois Xavier Bichat (description mortem picture number disease), German pathologist Rudolf Virchow (the theory of cellular pathology), K. Bernard (disease - a violation of the physiological equilibrium with the environment of the body), and others.
In today's presentation of the disease is characterized by the following main features:
1. The development of the disease the leading role played by the external environment, and for the people - primarily social. Changes the intrinsic properties of the body caused by environmental factors and firmly fixed (in Vol. H. And hereditary mechanisms), hereinafter themselves can play a leading role in the occurrence of disease (see. Medical Genetics).
2. Of great importance in the development of diseases, except etiology (ie. E. The causes of disease) and the external environment are protective and adaptive mechanisms of the organism. Disease development largely depends on the perfection of these mechanisms, the volume and speed of their inclusion in the pathological process. The man on the development and course of disease is greatly influenced by psychogenic factors.
3. Illness - the suffering of the whole organism. There is a completely isolated diseased organs and tissues, ie. E. The local diseases. If any disease to a greater or lesser extent, involved the entire body, which does not exclude the presence of primary lesions in a particular organ or part of the body.
There are the following periods of illness: hidden or latent (for infectious diseases - incubation), - the period between the start of exposure to the causative agent and the appearance of the first symptoms of the disease. It can last from a few seconds (for example, in cases of poisoning by strong poisons) to decades (eg in leprosy).
Prodromal period - the period of the first signs of the disease, which may be of indefinite non-specific (fever, fatigue, malaise), or in some cases to be typical of the disease (eg, stain Filatov - Koplik measles). The period of full development of the disease, the duration of which varies from a few days to tens of years (tuberculosis, syphilis, leprosy).
Diseases completion period (recovery, convalescence) can occur quickly or slowly critically, analytically. Depending on the synthroid news duration of the course and speed of the rise and disappearance of disease manifestations are acute and chronic Joining the main manifestations of the disease additional changes not related to the immediate cause of the disease, but emerging as a result of its flow is called a complication. It can occur at the height of the disease and it can avoid the main manifestations. Complications aggravate illness and sometimes can become a cause of adverse outcome. The outcome of disease may be: a full recovery, recovery with residual symptoms, persistent changes in organs, sometimes the emergence of new forms of the disease in the form of long-term effects and death. Death as the end of the disease may occur suddenly after a brief agony, or gradually, through a more or less prolonged agonal state.
Classification of diseases
Human nature is carried out by the flow (acute and chronic diseases); on the level at which the body identifies specific pathological changes in disease (molecular, chromosomal, cellular and tissue, organ, disease of the whole body); on the etiological factor (the disease caused by the mechanical, physical, chemical, biological or psychogenic factors); according to the method of treatment (therapeutic, surgical, etc.); by age or gender differences (women's, children's), etc.
The most accepted is nosological principle, ie. E., Such a classification of the disease, which is based on the grouping of diseases on related grounds. It should be noted that none of the existing classifications of disease is not fully satisfactory. Thus, the classification of nosological principle for pneumonia, for example, can be attributed to respiratory diseases, infectious diseases and allergic conditions. Therefore, the establishment of the modern classification of the disease is the most important task of theoretical and practical medicine.