Breast cancer - a disease that is accompanied by the formation in the breast epithelial tumor formation in which its growth comes from the gland ducts or lobules of it. Breast cancer, the symptoms of which may be based on the defeat of one or both of both glands is one of the most common tumor (cancerous) abnormalities, occurring in women.
If we consider in more detail the percentage of morbidity in the world figures, we can distinguish the figure of 22.9% - exactly the same percentage on the part of female cancers account for the pathology of interest to us. This figure does not take into account non-melanoma skin cancers are the type of origin. By the way speaking, breast cancer in men is also allowed as a possible disease, while women with her there almost 100 times more likely. Accordingly, there is an unfavorable trend of the outcomes of male breast cancer that is associated with late diagnosis.
The main risks that lead to the development of breast cancer, consider the following factors:. Heredity, obesity, early onset of menstruation (before reaching age 12), late menopause (after the age of 55 years), smoking, etc. Features of predisposing factors, we consider some below in the section.
With regard to this issue, as breast cancer symptoms, the brief can be summarized as follows: seal in the breast, lymph node enlargement, located in the underarm area, the occurrence of discharge from the teat of different nature, changing contours and color of breast, etc. In all of these. symptoms, we also discussed below.
Diagnosing the disease is carried out by probing the glands and their visual inspection, conducting ultrasound, mammography and biopsy. Features of treatment based on the characteristics of the course of breast cancer, the stage corresponding to this flow, forms, and other criteria relevant to the pathology. On the basis of these features can be applied method of surgical removal of the tumor mass, drug treatment or radiotherapy.
Regarding age, in which most of the women developed breast cancer, it may be noted that with the gradual increase of its risk of developing this disease also increases. In particular pathology often is diagnosed, ranging from 40 years and older. Breast cancer before the age of 30 years - an extremely rare diagnosis, mainly when its relevance is meant the combination of simultaneously influencing several risk factors that lead to this pathology. It should also be noted that in such an early occurrence of breast cancer, a disease amenable to treatment with large difficulties.
Breast Cancer: Causes
The reasons that trigger the development of breast cancer (glands) today studied sufficiently, because the selection of individual predisposing factors as those which cause and are considered to allow a little more substantive approach to the issue. Based on the orientation of conformity, in turn, can determine for themselves whether specific risks or, conversely, exclude them. The reasons (factors) that provoke breast cancer, decided to allocate the options that will be discussed below. Meanwhile, according to certain embodiments of these factors have additions, some of which are controversial, below we focus on them, immediately isolate the main number of causes (factors), considered as provoking the development of breast cancer:
Heredity. This factor plays a significant role in the possible development of a woman's breast cancer pill Nolvadex. In practice, confirmed that if the closest relatives was diagnosed with breast cancer, the risk for women with such kinship increased almost three times in comparison with the others. This feature is genetically determined. So, the point is that this relationship determines the presence of a specific gene in women, he, in turn, is directly responsible for the further development of this tumor disease (in particular it is a question of genes BRCA1, BRCA2). Meanwhile, even if these genes are missing, this does not exclude the potential for developing breast cancer. As revealed from the total number of women who have had the disease under consideration is hardly found in 1% of such predisposing genes.
Individual features of the female reproductive system. This factor involves a lot of factors accompanying them we initially listed. In particular these include early onset of menstruation (aged less than 12 years), late onset of first pregnancy (after age 30), late menopause (after age 55 years). Also here it ranked as the absence of pregnancy itself during life, and, accordingly, childbirth and lactation - the risk also increases.
The presence of "history" of breast cancer. In this case, this implies a risk factor in the presence of a history in the past female breast cancer, which she was diagnosed and subsequently cured. The risk in this case is defined for a second breast cancer (ie, that of the glands, which was not before the tumor formation).
Fibroadenoma and fibrocystic mastopathy. In the first case, that is when fibroadenoma, we are talking about the presence of the disease in women, acting as a predisposing factor for the development of breast cancer that develops a benign tumor formation in iron-based fibrous tissue dense enough in its own structure. In the second, that is, with fibrocystic mastopathy, as a predisposing factor considered pathology accompanied by proliferation of connective tissue in the prostate, which is also formed with a cavity filled (i.e., cyst) liquid.
Hormonal drugs. In this case, in particular the variant receiving such drugs within the postmenopausal period, which is otherwise defined as the period following the completion of the last menstruation in women. This factor is relevant to consider as a risk when it comes to reception, lasting more than three years.
Receiving oral contraceptives. In other words, a certain amount of risk is necessary in case of administration to a female contraceptive drugs. This risk is negligible, although there is in particular be defined for the situation with the reception of such drugs lasting for 10 or more consecutive years. Separately at risk in this area are the patient and at the age of 35 years, also taking contraceptives.
Exposure to radiation. The risk of developing the disease rises before us in women living in unfavorable areas with high radiation notes in them. In addition, under the item falls and radiotherapy, in which irradiation is performed intentionally, which, as the reader may suppose, is for medicinal purposes in case of a malignant tumor entities, non-breast cancer.
The presence of comorbidities. Breast cancer in the case of possible relevance of certain types of diseases, as examples of obesity can be distinguished, hypothyroidism (disease accompanied by decreased function thyroid), elevated blood pressure, diabetes.
Given the fact that some of the factors we have discussed above, can not be repaired, and given the fact that the development of breast cancer may be even in the case of absence of any of these factors, the most important task is to reduce risk, which determines the possibility of the development of this pathology. This is achieved in particular the struggle aimed at preventing such factors. For example, we have identified above fibrocystic breasts, which in itself is a precancerous pathology, which can be eliminated by using appropriate drugs have proven effective in such their application. In some cases, you can talk about almost 90% efficacy, which means that their use can not only eliminate the primary pathology, but also the risk involved, as we have already noted, with the development of breast cancer on this basis.
Basically the same as the causes of breast cancer are considered hormonal changes that are relevant to the organism. In particular, the period of entry into the climax, in which the notes and intense restructuring at the level of hormonal regulation of the female body. Development of estrogen as well as progesterone (all female sex hormones), reduced the ovaries lose their inherent activity - all this speaks of the so-called "hormonal crisis". The mucous membrane of the uterus (the endometrium that is), and mammary glands react to this kind of change to the greatest extent in the breast in particular are beginning to dissolve tissue, replenishment of such loss is due to fat tissue.
Scientifically proven fact is that a leading role for estrogens in breast cancer development - in particular, the excess hormones acts as a factor for the development of the causes of pathology. Remarkably, the lowest activity of estrogens noted within the period of pregnancy and after delivery (lactation ie breast-feeding). The risk of a woman's breast cancer significantly reduced, provided prolonged breastfeeding (of one year or more), this information is scientifically proven.