Renal disease in diabetes
It is supposed that most chronic (advanced) complications of diabetes - kidney disease, eye and nervous system - due to increased over the years in the blood glucose level. In the case of heart disease greater concentration of glucose in the blood can aggravate or complicate the disease, but it is not the direct cause. Many chronic (late) complications of diabetes develop within five to ten years or more from the time of primary diagnosis. However, note that type 2 diabetes is often diagnosed several years after its actual beginning.
In some cases, it is a chronic (later) complication of diabetes and is not elevated blood glucose doctor suggests the presence of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, even those patients who were diagnosed recently, the need for careful examination in view of the fact that their diabetes can have a long history.
Kidney disease in diabetes
Thanks to the kidneys the body is released from the harmful chemical elements and compounds that are produced during normal metabolism. This body - a kind of filter, which cleans the blood, and "waste" displays in the urine, and then they are removed from the body. Kidneys also regulate water-salt balance of the human body. When kidney disease (nephropathy) have to resort to dialysis - a procedure cleans the blood and regulates water and salt balance. Another solution in this case - a transplant donor kidney is a preferred embodiment.
Today, at least half of patients requiring long-term dialysis, - diabetics. Fortunately, patients Akiho percentage decreases as more diabetics tend to monitor their blood glucose levels. Patients with type 2 diabetes kidney diseases occur in 5% of cases, and in patients with type 1 diabetes - 30% of cases. However, the absolute number of diabetics suffering from kidney disease, in these two groups is almost the same as Type 2 diabetes circulated ten times wider than type 1 diabetes.
The impact of diabetes on the kidneys
In each kidney there are hundreds of thousands of so-called glomeruli, are responsible for the process of blood purification. The blood passes through tiny capillaries of the glomeruli, in contact with the tubular, which moves the purified blood. As soon as purified blood passes through the tubules, and most of the liquid is absorbed normal blood components and returned back into the body. A waste together with a small amount of liquid come out of the kidney into the ureter, into the bladder and then from there go out through the urethra.
At the beginning of diabetic buy Capoten Online kidney disease do not work what is normal, and even redundant, because through them a large amount of glucose, which pulls a lot of fluid and causes an increase in pressure within each glomerulus. This rapid blood flow through the kidneys called the glomerular filtration rate increased.
At the early stage of diabetes membrane surrounding the glomerulus - glomerular basement membrane - thickens, as well as other adjoining tissue. These expanding membrane and tissue are gradually replacing the capillaries inside the glomeruli, which is why the past can no longer be sufficient to clean the blood. Fortunately, the human body has a reserve of glomeruli, so even if one kidney fails, blood purification process continues.
But if left untreated kidney disease for 15 years or longer, in the blood shows signs of beginning renal failure, which is fraught with the appearance of uremia - a chronic self-poisoning organism due to renal failure. Uremia is characterized by the accumulation in the blood of toxic products of nitrogen metabolism (azotemia) and violation of the acid-alkaline balance. Its manifestations:. Lethargy, headache, vomiting, diarrhea, itching, seizures, coma, etc. In the absence of remedial measures for 20 years, the kidneys may completely refuse
Not all patients are equally likely to develop diabetes, kidney disease and kidney failure. high-risk group consists of patients with high blood pressure, but nephropathy develops only half of hypertensive patients besides diabetes.
The impact of diabetes on the kidneys
The earliest sign of diabetic nephropathy - a microalbuminuria. Healthy kidneys into the urine is passed only a small amount of albumin - protein contained in blood. When nephropathy albumin in the urine increases.
However, in the early stages of the disease the presence of albumin in urine slightly, and it can not be detected by conventional analysis, a more complicated. You collect all the selected urine per day and sampled for analysis a sample of this amount, or from the urine collected over a certain period of time, typically four hours. If albumin levels are too high, the analysis is carried out to make sure once again, because some of the factors (eg, physical activity) can cause a false positive result. The second positive is definitely indicative of kidney disease.
What tests need to pass in order to check the work of the kidneys, and the meaning of their results - details here. There you will learn how to control your blood pressure to prevent kidney failure. Microalbuminuria, identified about five years before it can be detected by routine blood tests, it lends itself to a complete cure. Microalbuminuria, diagnosed by a routine blood test, can not be completely cured.
If you're type 1 diabetes for more than five years or if you have been recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, you show screening for microalbuminuria. If a negative result is obtained, it should be repeated yearly analysis.
Studies on which reports have been published in the New England Journal of Medicine in June 2003 year showed that microalbuminuria does not always lead to renal failure. Patients with type 1 diabetes who have managed to improve the performance level of glucose in their blood, normalize blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels, have reduced microalbuminuria symptoms and therefore slow the deterioration of kidney condition. Furthermore, these patients showed such improvements in health status